Batters are mixtures of flour or meal and a liquid, with salt or sugar to give flavour, butter to make tender, and steam, air, or gas to make light.
One scant measure of liquid is used with one measure of flour for thin, or pour, batter. One measure of liquid is used with two measures of flour for a thick, or drop, batter. One measure of liquid is used with three measures of flour for a soft, or bread, dough. One measure of liquid is used with four measures of flour for a stiff, or pastry, dough.
Before mixing a batter, the oven or griddle should be at the proper temperature, with the fire well regulated and in good condition. The oven should be tested by putting in a piece of white paper or two tablespoonfuls of flour, which should brown in three minutes. The pans should be prepared by greasing with lard, salt pork, or beef dripping. All the materials should be measured and ready before beginning to combine the ingredients. When the batter has been mixed and beaten until smooth, it should be baked at once.