Mix flour and water together to the consistency of a thick batter; then beat it until fine bubbles of air thoroughly permeate it; for small biscuit, pour it into patty pans, and bake in a good brisk oven; for bread in loaves more flour is thoroughly kneaded in with the hands, until the dough is full of air-bubbles, and then baked at once, without being allowed to stand.
When bread is to be raised by the acetous fermentation of yeast, the sponge should be maintained at a temperature of 89° Fahr. until it is sufficiently light, and the baking should be accomplished at a heat of over 320°. When yeast is too bitter from the excess of hops, mix plenty of water with it, and let it stand for some hours; then throw the water off, and use the settlings. When yeast has soured it may be restored by adding to it a little carbonate of soda or ammonia. When dough has soured, the acidity can be corrected by the use of a little carbonate of soda or ammonia. If the sponge of "raised bread" be allowed to overwork itself it will sour from excessive fermentation, and if the temperature be permitted to fall, and the dough to cool, it will be heavy. Thorough kneading renders yeast-bread white and fine, but is unnecessary in bread made with baking-powder. Great care should be taken in the preparation of yeast for leavened bread, as the chemical decomposition inseparable from its use is largely increased by any impurity or undue fermentation. Experience and judgment are necessary to the uniform production of good bread; and those are gained only by repeated trials.