The fat from meat not required in dressing it, and the ends of chops, etc., make excellent shortening for pies and cakes. Cut it into small pieces and put it into an old saucepan with about one quart of water. Boil until all the water is evaporated; the fat will then begin to boil. Strain this melted fat into a basin, and continue to do so until all the fat is extracted. This is a good substitute for butter and lard.